Just dropping in on my poor, dead LIK to post a little study guide for myself. Last semester of MA is kind of a lot of work and I may actually need to study on the subway. I’ll write something “real” later, like after the semester is over in December. There are things to be discussed such as gout and how I’d rather go to prison than spend another year teaching kindergarten.
Input: Linguistic and non-linguistic information that a learner hears, sees or reads. Can include speech, gestures, text, facial expressions.
Technique: Classroom activities that are consistent with a method and an approach. A classroom device that is narrower in focus than approach and method.
Method: Set of procedures or techniques for how to teach. Is more broad than a technique but narrower than an approach.
Approach: Set of assumptions, beliefs, and theories about teaching. Less fixed than methods and more open…may include a variety of methods.
Chunking: Word groups that have semantic meaning as a group, e.g.: good morning, how are you.
Washback: A test’s effect on instruction.
Interaction: Mutual activity between students or students and materials.
Text: Spoken or written language.
Co-text: Linguistic environment surrounding target word/text.
Context: Situational environment of language use that defines where/why/relationships.
TPR: Total physical response (ASHER).A teaching method based on language and physical movement.
Scaffolding: All forms of assistance that teachers provide, e.g. modeling
Teacher talk: Language used by teachers. A modified version of speech.
Schema: Background knowledge of students.
Brainstorming: Idea generation.
Lexicon: In the generative view, single words. The vocabulary of a person, language, or branch of knowledge.
Grammar: Structural rules, patterns that occur in language.
Inner speech: Inner dialogue within oneself that helps structure thoughts into actions
Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis: (LADO) Behaviorist idea. Comparison of linguistic systems of two languages. Tells teachers what they need to teach.
Input Hypothesis: Krashen, i+1. Theory that learners need only input that is slightly beyond their understanding to learn language.
Fossilization: When a language system is mentally stuck and mistakes are repeated despite correction
Encoding: Storing things in memory
Output Hypothesis: SWAIN’s reaction to the input hypothesis, and is also necessary for L2 development
Modularity: Theory that the brain is divided into distinct functions. Each module is self-contained and works on different principles.
Acculturation: (SCHUMANN) Process of adapting to a new culture.
Peer pressure: Pressure to be like everyone else
Strategic competence: Ability to compensate for imperfect knowledge of linguistic, sociolinguistic, and discourse rules. Compensatory strategies, such as ending a conversation or clearing up confusion.
Fluency: Speed, ease, and flow/smoothness of language production
Interlanguage: (SELINKER) The current state of one’s language as seen on a continuum. A product of error analysis.
Functions: The purpose of language use, such as requesting, apologizing, making excuses, etc.
Curricula & Materials Development
Activity: Open-ended classroom procedures that are done in groups.
Exercise: Controlled, guided practice of some aspect of language. Often done alone.
Goals: Purpose of the course
Needs: Info about learners and their needs
Syllabus: Summary of topics in a course. A sequence and timeframe.
Lesson plan: Teacher’s guide for running a lesson
Modeling: Clear example of a skill or strategy
Curriculum: Lessons and content in a school or course over time
Assessment: Measuring progress, needs
Survey: Interview or discussion about a topic. To glean info about an aspect of a class.
Theme: Topic, area of focus, e.g. music, travel, etc.
Wind down: Gradually bring a class to an end. Review what was done.
Task chain: A big task broken down into different tasks. Tasks are interconnected.
Group work: Students working collaboratively, having the chance to use language they can’t use when alone
Warm up: Preparing students for the lesson